|Died||December 31, 1802 (aged 89)|
New York City, U.S.
|Resting place||Trinity Church Cemetery, New York City|
|Known for||Signer of the United States Declaration of Independence|
(m. 1745; died 1778)
Francis Lewis (March 21, 1713 – December 31, 1802) was an American merchant and a Founding Father of the United States. He was a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence and Articles of Confederation as a representative of New York in the Continental Congress.
Lewis entered a mercantile house in London until he turned 21 and inherited some properties left by his father. Lewis sold the properties and used the proceeds to acquire merchandise, set sail for New York City, arriving there in 1734 or 1735. He left some of the goods in New York to be sold by Edward Annesley, his business partner, and brought the rest to Philadelphia. After two years in Philadelphia, he returned to New York.
Lewis made several trans-Atlantic trips, visiting several northern European ports, Saint Petersburg, northern Scotland, and Africa. He was taken prisoner while he served as a British mercantile agent in 1756 and sent to France for imprisonment. On his release and his return home, he became active in politics.
Lewis was a member of the Committee of Sixty, a member of the New York Provincial Congress, and a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1779. In 1776 he signed the United States Declaration of Independence, and in 1778 he signed the United States Articles of Confederation. In 1779, he served as the chairman of the Continental Board of Admiralty.
He helped his son Francis Lewis Jr. open a dry goods business named Francis Lewis and Son. His son Morgan served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and later held many offices in New York State, including governor.
In 1745, Lewis married to Elizabeth Annesley (died 1779), a sister of his business partner, Thomas Annesley. Together, they were the parents of seven children, three of whom survived to adulthood:
- Ann Lewis (1748–1802), who married Captain George Robertson (1742–1791) of the British Royal Navy.
- Francis Lewis Jr. (1749–1814), who served as churchwarden of St George's Parish in Flushing, New York, from 1791 to 1794. He married Elizabeth Ludlow (d. 1831), daughter of Gabriel Ludlow, Esq.
- Morgan Lewis (1754–1844), who married Gertrude Livingston, the daughter of Judge Robert Livingston of Clermont. He was a governor and attorney general of New York.
In 1775, Lewis acquired and relocated his family to an estate located in Whitestone, in present-day Queens. The home was later destroyed in the American Revolutionary War by British soldiers, who also arrested his wife, Elizabeth, and denied her a change of clothing or adequate food for weeks while in captivity. Her hardships in captivity ruined her health and led to her death in 1778 after being released in a prisoner exchange.
Through his eldest surviving daughter Ann, he was a grandfather to Marianne Robertson (1779–1829), who married John Bird Sumner, the Archbishop of Canterbury and brother of Charles Richard Sumner, bishop of Winchester. Through his son Morgan, he was a grandfather of Margret Lewis (1780–1860), who married New York lawyer and politician Maturin Livingston and became parents to twelve children. Through his son Francis Jr., he was a grandfather of Gabriel Ludlow Lewis.
Death and legacy
Lewis died on December 31, 1802, although his memorial in Trinity Church Cemetery gives his year of death as 1803.
In Queens, New York, Francis Lewis High School and P.S. 79 "The Francis Lewis School" are named after Lewis. Francis Lewis Boulevard, which locals sometimes refer to as "Franny Lew" or "Franny Lewie," stretches almost the entire north/south length of the borough. Francis Lewis Park is located under the Queens approach of the Bronx-Whitestone Bridge. A society of the Children of the American Revolution located in Queens, NY, is named for him. A masonic lodge, Francis Lewis #273, is located in Whitestone.
- Bernstein, Richard B. (2009). "Appendix: The Founding Fathers, A Partial List". The Founding Fathers Reconsidered. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 176–180. ISBN 978-0199832576.
- "LEWIS, Francis, (1713 - 1803)". The Biographical Dictionary of the United States Congress.
- Williams, David (1959). "LEWIS, FRANCIS (1713 - 1802), one of the signatories of the American Declaration of Independence". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. National Library of Wales. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- Scoville, Joseph Alfred (1885). The Old Merchants of New York City. T. R. Knox. p. 105. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- "Francis Lewis". www.dsdi1776.com. The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- "To George Washington from the Board of War, 8 November 1776". National Archives. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- Reynolds, Cuyler (1914). Genealogical and Family History of Southern New York and the Hudson River Valley: A Record of the Achievements of Her People in the Making of a Commonwealth and the Building of a Nation. Lewis Historical Publishing Company. p. 1343. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "Robertson, Thomas Campbell". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/23813.
the youngest son of Captain George Robertson RN, who was offered a knighthood by George III for his intrepid conduct at the battle of the Dogger Bank in 1781, and of Anne, daughter of Francis Lewis of New York, formerly of Llandaff, south Wales.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "Died". New York Evening Post. 17 January 1831. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- Belinsky, Stefan. "Morgan Lewis". New York State Museum. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "Francis Lewis, New York". Signers of the Declaration. National Park Service. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
- Hirshon, Nicholas (3 July 2011). "Francis Lewis' descendants want tribute to Queens signer of Declaration of Independence". New York Daily News. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Revolution, Daughters of the American (1908). Lineage Book - National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Daughters of the American Revolution. p. 73. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- "Home". Francis Lewis Society Children of the American Revolution. Retrieved 3 November 2023.
- "History". Queens Masonic District. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- United States Congress. "Francis Lewis (id: L000282)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- "Francis Lewis". The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence.